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Tuesday, 7 January 2020

Review of administration of Mamluk Sultans

The review of the administration of the Mamluks Sultans begins with the Middle Ages following the arrival of the Turks as rulers. Each era begins with its own specific tendencies. Although feudal formation in India continued after the establishment of Delhi Sultanate by Turks, however, meet a strong government in North India. There is also the fact that the government established by the Mamluks Turks was based on the religion of Islam. The rights of citizenship were not enunciated by Hindus. The majority of Turks continued to consume rich power. Like in Persia, the central government remained strong and the central center of the Orsari power remained in the hands of the Sultan. But in the period between 1206 and 1290 AD, a number of chaos occurred in North India due to Aibak's departure from where he left, Ismitish's unworthy successor and the Quran did not have any explanation for succession. But due to the long-term rule of Ishtmish and the policy of blood and blood of Balban, Delhi Sultanate remained in existence. Due to this effect, there was peace in India and the government started working in a planned manner. Muhammad Habib has seen the changes of this period as KO 'urban revolution'. Large cities were sold in Bengal, Doab, Malwa and Gujarat. Dr. Ghoshal says that the economic condition of the cities was in its full development during this period. 3 Looking at the changes after the arrival of the Mamluks Turks, Prof. Nusl Hasan has written that the old feudal society remained in the era of the Turks. The number of misunderstandings increased, castes continued to be enriched, regional art trends in art, language and literature also became powerful.


Khilji dynasty


The Sultan was very fond of buying slaves. Therefore, the number of slaves increased. The administration of slaves started increasing in influence day by day. Due to this, the number of items also increased day by day. But Balban controlled this. The life of the Sultans was becoming luxuriant day by day. Therefore, different types of goods started being produced to meet their needs. The artisans left the villages and started moving to the cities. Goods started being imported from abroad. Paper also became available in this era. State mandates were started to be sent in cryptography. With the achievement of paper, scholar travelers from Persia, Turks and Arabs started writing history of Sultans.




This helped in the spread of education. The above changes were seen in most cities. But the supply of heavy expenses of salnate was carried from the land itself. Even in the Sastanat period, the village remained the unit of the empire. The life of the village remained self-sufficient during that time. Most of the people of India were farmers. By producing various types of food grains and different types of fruits and flowers, they kept the backbone of the villages in the Delhi Surutanat. Although the Mamlukra Sultans did not ask for land reforms, the fertile land of North India continued to yield two in a year. Dattanbutta says that the agrarian land of India was so fertile that it kept on giving two yields a year and rice was grown three times a year. Nurul Hasan says that due to the agile nature of agriculture, the process of urbanization started which resulted in the sale of big cities and towns. Sultans did not quarrel with the local governance of the villages. Panchayats continued to do all the work there. But the government had appointed its officers to recover the revenue. Instructing the villagers that they should take full care of the security and development of rural roads, bridges and land. Jaziya and grazing tax were also collected to study government income. Due to these actions of administration, the economic condition of Sastanat had become so good during this period that moneylenders had started giving loans to the Sultan and the rich.

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