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Tuesday, 7 January 2020

Legislation for non-Muslims under the rule of law

Legislation for non-Muslims under the rule of law
The Shara also explicitly mentioned the responsibilities of non-Muslims to settle in Muslim states. While living in a Muslim state, he does not hold any responsibility towards Islam. Therefore, they should be made jiziya. A non-Muslim who worked in the army or held a state post was free from jizya. But Qureshi says that Mamluk sultans never practiced this principle. The Hindus were free from the Zakat due by the Muslims and they had complete freedom to conduct religion. Hindus had to accept twenty terms under Islamic law and they were all derogatory. Sheikh Hamdani has given full reference to those terms in his book Zakirat-ul-Mulk. These terms were kept by Khalifa Umar (Rununaksha). Therefore, it is clear that these twenty derogatory terms started with the beginning of Islam. If we violated these conditions, the Muslim state would not be responsible for their safety, the Muslims had every right to take their lives and their property. If Hindunya wanted it, it would have been better to go to a Muslim court. The traditional disputes between Hindus and Muslims used to go to Muslim courts only. If Adi and Pratibandi were of the same denomination, then the court would pass judgment based on their personal laws. If there was a Muslim among them, justice was done on the basis of fairness. One difficulty faced by Muslim states in deciding criminal prosecutions was that there were no criminal laws at the outset on which everyone's criminal cases could be decided. But before the victory of India, he had solved this problem as well. Muslim lawmakers started imposing Muslim foreclosure laws everywhere but where it was against the prevailing traditions there, it was not implemented there. For example, in Islam, committing suicide is against the law, but if someone commits self-immolation in the name of Hinduism, he would not be punished. But it was necessary to obtain prior approval from the Crow State who committed this type of self-murder (sati). The punishment was also mild from the non-Muslim Muslims, as it was impossible for them to treat the Muslim code as equal to the loyalty of the Muslims. In addition, it has been said that the Muslim foreclosure law was more liberal than other law codes.
Review of Sultan in Mamulak regime
Judicial courts
As has been said, the Sultan is the source of justice. His decision in the field of justice was final. He used to do this work as a diwali-kaazi. In the capacity of Diwan-i-Majalim, he used to give judgment in the prosecutions. Military criminals were punished by military officers. In the course of time, the Dewananciyasat was established to punish military criminal rebels. Only the Sultan could give harsh physical punishment. Complaints against officers were heard in the courts of justice. The Sultan used to sit twice in a week in Pajalim court, punishing the chief with the advice of Qazi.















The Provincial Majalim was made up of the Governor, the Diwan, and the Provincial Qazi, and the Governor, with the help of them, rendered the decision.















The simple criminal and civil prosecutions were decided by Qazi-e-Mumalik. He used to appoint his Qazi in the morning. The chief qazi was a well-known scholar and pious. Qazi's dictum was to find out the facts and punish the culprit. Qazi neither summoned the culprit nor sent summons to the witnesses. He did not even make his own decisions. There were separate employees for these who were called Amir-Dad.















Tzarikeh Mujarak Shahi shows that there were shingles under Amir-Dad. They were appointed in each town and there was a Kazi with them. In every city there was a Kotwal to maintain order. He used to conduct the first inquiry in criminal prosecution. Muhtasib used to be another employee. His work also had to be judged. He used to punish those who violated the laws of the state. If the offender did not accept his crime, then the matter was referred to Qazi. The tasks that the municipal corporations and municipalities do today are done by Krottwal at that time. There was an appeal against the decision of the lower courts in the higher courts. 2 The quarrels of the villages were decided by the Mam Panchayats.















Provincial and local governance















The process of expanding and strengthening the boundaries of the Sultanate continued in the 13th century and it continued to function in the 14th century. When the central government began to organize, it began to try for more centralization, because in this century the victorious Turks had eliminated many small and infirm Hindu kings. In order to keep the empire crow organized and well organized, he began to divide it in the province and the officials of the province started to be called Ikta (Avata). They were given the right to recover the revenue of that province by not giving them a cash salary. This was called the land-subscribed method m. Iqta used to form his army with this revenue and tried to maintain peace and order in the state. Many historians called the land given under the land grant system. And those in whose authority it was assigned were called muksi or vali. They get angry with their history
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