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Tuesday, 7 January 2020

Legislation for non-Muslims under the rule of law

Legislation for non-Muslims under the rule of law
The Shara also explicitly mentioned the responsibilities of non-Muslims to settle in Muslim states. While living in a Muslim state, he does not hold any responsibility towards Islam. Therefore, they should be made jiziya. A non-Muslim who worked in the army or held a state post was free from jizya. But Qureshi says that Mamluk sultans never practiced this principle. The Hindus were free from the Zakat due by the Muslims and they had complete freedom to conduct religion. Hindus had to accept twenty terms under Islamic law and they were all derogatory. Sheikh Hamdani has given full reference to those terms in his book Zakirat-ul-Mulk. These terms were kept by Khalifa Umar (Rununaksha). Therefore, it is clear that these twenty derogatory terms started with the beginning of Islam. If we violated these conditions, the Muslim state would not be responsible for their safety, the Muslims had every right to take their lives and their property. If Hindunya wanted it, it would have been better to go to a Muslim court. The traditional disputes between Hindus and Muslims used to go to Muslim courts only. If Adi and Pratibandi were of the same denomination, then the court would pass judgment based on their personal laws. If there was a Muslim among them, justice was done on the basis of fairness. One difficulty faced by Muslim states in deciding criminal prosecutions was that there were no criminal laws at the outset on which everyone's criminal cases could be decided. But before the victory of India, he had solved this problem as well. Muslim lawmakers started imposing Muslim foreclosure laws everywhere but where it was against the prevailing traditions there, it was not implemented there. For example, in Islam, committing suicide is against the law, but if someone commits self-immolation in the name of Hinduism, he would not be punished. But it was necessary to obtain prior approval from the Crow State who committed this type of self-murder (sati). The punishment was also mild from the non-Muslim Muslims, as it was impossible for them to treat the Muslim code as equal to the loyalty of the Muslims. In addition, it has been said that the Muslim foreclosure law was more liberal than other law codes.
Review of Sultan in Mamulak regime
Judicial courts
As has been said, the Sultan is the source of justice. His decision in the field of justice was final. He used to do this work as a diwali-kaazi. In the capacity of Diwan-i-Majalim, he used to give judgment in the prosecutions. Military criminals were punished by military officers. In the course of time, the Dewananciyasat was established to punish military criminal rebels. Only the Sultan could give harsh physical punishment. Complaints against officers were heard in the courts of justice. The Sultan used to sit twice in a week in Pajalim court, punishing the chief with the advice of Qazi.

The Provincial Majalim was made up of the Governor, the Diwan, and the Provincial Qazi, and the Governor, with the help of them, rendered the decision.

The simple criminal and civil prosecutions were decided by Qazi-e-Mumalik. He used to appoint his Qazi in the morning. The chief qazi was a well-known scholar and pious. Qazi's dictum was to find out the facts and punish the culprit. Qazi neither summoned the culprit nor sent summons to the witnesses. He did not even make his own decisions. There were separate employees for these who were called Amir-Dad.

Tzarikeh Mujarak Shahi shows that there were shingles under Amir-Dad. They were appointed in each town and there was a Kazi with them. In every city there was a Kotwal to maintain order. He used to conduct the first inquiry in criminal prosecution. Muhtasib used to be another employee. His work also had to be judged. He used to punish those who violated the laws of the state. If the offender did not accept his crime, then the matter was referred to Qazi. The tasks that the municipal corporations and municipalities do today are done by Krottwal at that time. There was an appeal against the decision of the lower courts in the higher courts. 2 The quarrels of the villages were decided by the Mam Panchayats.

Provincial and local governance

The process of expanding and strengthening the boundaries of the Sultanate continued in the 13th century and it continued to function in the 14th century. When the central government began to organize, it began to try for more centralization, because in this century the victorious Turks had eliminated many small and infirm Hindu kings. In order to keep the empire crow organized and well organized, he began to divide it in the province and the officials of the province started to be called Ikta (Avata). They were given the right to recover the revenue of that province by not giving them a cash salary. This was called the land-subscribed method m. Iqta used to form his army with this revenue and tried to maintain peace and order in the state. Many historians called the land given under the land grant system. And those in whose authority it was assigned were called muksi or vali. They get angry with their history
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Review of administration of Mamluk Sultans

The review of the administration of the Mamluks Sultans begins with the Middle Ages following the arrival of the Turks as rulers. Each era begins with its own specific tendencies. Although feudal formation in India continued after the establishment of Delhi Sultanate by Turks, however, meet a strong government in North India. There is also the fact that the government established by the Mamluks Turks was based on the religion of Islam. The rights of citizenship were not enunciated by Hindus. The majority of Turks continued to consume rich power. Like in Persia, the central government remained strong and the central center of the Orsari power remained in the hands of the Sultan. But in the period between 1206 and 1290 AD, a number of chaos occurred in North India due to Aibak's departure from where he left, Ismitish's unworthy successor and the Quran did not have any explanation for succession. But due to the long-term rule of Ishtmish and the policy of blood and blood of Balban, Delhi Sultanate remained in existence. Due to this effect, there was peace in India and the government started working in a planned manner. Muhammad Habib has seen the changes of this period as KO 'urban revolution'. Large cities were sold in Bengal, Doab, Malwa and Gujarat. Dr. Ghoshal says that the economic condition of the cities was in its full development during this period. 3 Looking at the changes after the arrival of the Mamluks Turks, Prof. Nusl Hasan has written that the old feudal society remained in the era of the Turks. The number of misunderstandings increased, castes continued to be enriched, regional art trends in art, language and literature also became powerful.

Khilji dynasty

The Sultan was very fond of buying slaves. Therefore, the number of slaves increased. The administration of slaves started increasing in influence day by day. Due to this, the number of items also increased day by day. But Balban controlled this. The life of the Sultans was becoming luxuriant day by day. Therefore, different types of goods started being produced to meet their needs. The artisans left the villages and started moving to the cities. Goods started being imported from abroad. Paper also became available in this era. State mandates were started to be sent in cryptography. With the achievement of paper, scholar travelers from Persia, Turks and Arabs started writing history of Sultans.

This helped in the spread of education. The above changes were seen in most cities. But the supply of heavy expenses of salnate was carried from the land itself. Even in the Sastanat period, the village remained the unit of the empire. The life of the village remained self-sufficient during that time. Most of the people of India were farmers. By producing various types of food grains and different types of fruits and flowers, they kept the backbone of the villages in the Delhi Surutanat. Although the Mamlukra Sultans did not ask for land reforms, the fertile land of North India continued to yield two in a year. Dattanbutta says that the agrarian land of India was so fertile that it kept on giving two yields a year and rice was grown three times a year. Nurul Hasan says that due to the agile nature of agriculture, the process of urbanization started which resulted in the sale of big cities and towns. Sultans did not quarrel with the local governance of the villages. Panchayats continued to do all the work there. But the government had appointed its officers to recover the revenue. Instructing the villagers that they should take full care of the security and development of rural roads, bridges and land. Jaziya and grazing tax were also collected to study government income. Due to these actions of administration, the economic condition of Sastanat had become so good during this period that moneylenders had started giving loans to the Sultan and the rich.
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Khalji Dynasty (1290 -1320 AD)

Khalji Dynasty (1290 -1320 AD)

1290 AD The Khalji revolution had many far-reaching consequences. The most important among them was the establishment of the Khalji Empire in place of the Itwari Turks. Balban deprived the sons of Sultan Nasiruddin to retain his dynasty. With this state change, Balban proved that the Sultan's position is not only hereditary, in order to become a Sultan, his own power and the support of the commander and the rich is also necessary. The Khalji dynasty did not have the blood of royal Turks. They are considered proletarian. The proletarian Khalji dynasty overthrew the imperial Turks and gained the throne of Delhi with the support of the army and the rich. In history, it was a mad revolution and Indian revolution was also supported in this revolution. By the way, descent change was not a new phenomenon for Indians. Jalaluddin, the founder of the Khalji dynasty, received the throne of Delhi with the support of the army and the support of the rich and he retained the rule in his hands for six years by his power. This significantly changed the ethnic character of the ruling class. Jalaluddin did not remove the Turkish rich from the higher items, but he definitely reduced the importance of the Turkish rich by appointing his supporters in important positions of the state.

Also read: Alauddin Khalji

Who was the Khalsi?

KS Lal says that the citizens of Delhi, Jalaluddin

He was dissatisfied with the ascension. Contemporary writer Jiahuddin Barani writes that the sound of the Delhi high-class and shy people, the sound of congratulations, did not welcome Jalaluddin's ascension. Naveen Sultan was also familiar with his stance. That is why he was able to enter the river for a long period and got his ascent in the palace of Ghari. The Emir of Delhi was angry with his sitting on his side because they did not consider him to be Turk and the caste feeling was very strong in him. Now the question arises that who was Khalji?

This question remains controversial even today. some

Historians consider them Turks and some consider them Afghans. Ziauddin Barni was a historian of that time. Therefore, his mention should be very reliable. He has written that Khalji was thin with the Turks, but he did not attempt to tell who they were, "he writes," When Kekubad was seriously ill and did not expect to be well, Vlan's Officers gathered and decided to run the administration by a committee of patrons, enthroning an under-privileged son of Muizuddin so that the power of the Turks would not be taken away. Gay writes - Since Jalaluddin belonged to the Thin caste he did not believe 'nor did the Turks have any faith in the Khaljis. It is clear that the first ruler of the Khalji dynasty was not Jalaluddin Turk. Barani also writes that Khalji Differed from the Turks. But he does not explain which caste they belonged to. In later historians, Nizamuddin considers him an Afghan and says that he, along with Muhammad Ghori, India He came and was a descendant of Genghis Khan's son-in-law, Kuli Khan. He writes, Kuli Khan's relationship with his wife is not good, but he was not courageous enough to ostracize his flock's father, the Mongol emperor. Finally, he found the opportunity to take off his allegiance to Genghis Khan, while the mother-in-law of his family and followers, who numbered about 30,000, were in the valleys of Zuristan. Switch to moved. He lived there peacefully and his people started calling him as Kulij. But later the word changed to Khalbi due to continued use. When the Peacock rulers conquered India, Khalji came with them to India in large numbers and got jobs under the Sultans of India. Sultan Jalaluddin of Delhi and Mahmud ruler of Malwa in Dum Khaljiriyas. But Nizamuddin's statement cannot be considered credible, because he himself wrote at one place that the Khalji people fought with Khwarismshahi forces. It is clear that they were present in India only from Genghis Khan. It is also supported by the angel. He writes that Nakhmi's predecessor Khsjis are frequently mentioned in history, but Agai supports Nizamuddin's statement, writing, Kunlikhan himself ho Khalji clan for Rs. And Jalaluddin of Delhi and Mahmud of Malwa are his direct descendants, 'Badayuni does not agree with this statement. He says that in fact there is no relation between Kralij and Khalla. Therefore, it is baseless to assume the origin of the Khalji dynasty from the Kalies.

Hajiubir relates the Khaljiryo of Malwa to Kralijkhan, the son of Akrasiyab, the son-in-law of Genghis Khan, 1, but does not tell him about the dynasty of Jalaluddin of Delhi.
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Major events of the reign of Jalaluddin Feroz Khalji

Major events of the reign of Jalaluddin Feroz Khalji

(1) Rebellion of Malik Chhajju-

Malik Chhablu, however, did not protest when Jalaluddin became Sultan. He was a descendant of Balban and was also a powerful emir. But he was not content with the liberal policy of the Sultan. The Amir began to say openly that a Sultan who cannot punish his enemies nor properly reward supporters and friends is not eligible to become a Sultan. 1290 AD due to his soft policy. Chhajju dared to revolt. With reference to this behavior of Chhablukhan, Dr. K.S. Lal writes, "The incurable element did not lag behind taking advantage of Jalaluddin's humility." Before becoming Sultan, he also told the rich "I am an old Muslim and I am not used to shed the blood of Muslims." His opponents also took undue advantage of the statement and they started preparing for the rebellion. The Amir Ali Awatim Khan of Awadh also supported him. The Amir of Delhi also supported him. Some Indian Muslims had also met him. So he did not declare his own independence, but he also molded his name and read the name of Khutwa. After this he went to Delhi and a huge army. He left; but near Badaun, he was defeated by Jalaluddin's son Akhil Khan. The royal soldiers looted his camp and took the form of Uskro Bandi. Presented before the Sultan. The Sultan was in Ruhelkhand at that time. Haday was exasperated seeing the pathetic condition of the forgiving Sultan. He did not forgive him, but made him the ruler of the Multan interpretation). It is clear that the Sultan accompanied him and his The prisoner is treated in the same manner as guests are treated with cray. This act of the Sultan angered his nobles and he started to disqualify the Sultan as an unworthy ruler. Seeing the opposition of Khalji the rich, he said, "He can make someone in his relatives change his humanity in return for this inhuman massacre of raj-raj-he can vacate the place." But this forgiveness policy also had good results. Chhajiu did not rebel after this.

Jalaluddi's foreign policy

(2) Slaughter of Darvesh Sidi Maula

He was a dervish of Persia and a disciple of Farid-ud-din. He was residing in Delhi since Balban's reign. Its public in delhi

Major events of the reign of Jalaluddin Feroz Khalji Part 2

(3) Khalji revolt of the rich

The Turks Amir was not only expressing his anger against Jalaluddin's liberalism; Varam Khalji Amir Me was expressing his displeasure. They were considering the Sultan's weakness as the Sultan's liberal policy. He gave high positions to the rich of both parties, with the intention of maintaining a balance between the two parties (Tuko Amir and Khalji Amir). But Khalji Amir got angry with this policy and started preparing for the rebellion. Ahmed Chapp tried to convince Sultan Crowe that this liberal policy would not make the administration work. Tajuddin Kutchi, who was influential and powerful among the Khalji rich, formed a separate group of his own. It was also a member of a group of forty slaves. He overthrew the Sultan and started efforts to become a Sultan himself. He started preparing the role of a conspiracy by 'inviting the rich to feast' at his home. But the Sultan came to know about this conspiracy. He called his rich. But instead of punishing him, he only told him that if he did not abandon the conspiratorial policy, he would abandon the throne and hand it over to son Arkalo, who was known for his harsh policy. Pardon these conspiracies and sent them away from Delhi only.

(4) Suppression of thugs

When Jalaluddin came to Delhi, he saw that the terror of the thugs was all around. They rob the passengers and mercilessly kill them. The Sultan took quick steps to suppress the thugs. He took military action against them. Thugs were arrested in thousands. But when he was presented to the Sultan, he was released on the condition that he would spend his life through other livelihoods rather than plunder in future. Giving this ideal full discourse, he forgave those subcrows and sent them to Bengal. Here too he introduced his liberal policy, but the life of the thugs definitely improved and he stopped plundering.

After Ranthambhir's abusive exodus, another problem arose before the Sultan. 1291 -92 A.D. In Iran, Abdullakch, grandson of Halaku Khan, moved towards India with 1.5 million Mongol soldiers. On receiving the news, the Sultan sent an army and blocked the Mongol army route on the eastern bank of the Indus River. According to Barney, the enemy Crow was completely defeated. A large number of Mongols were killed and thousands of prisoners of war were formed. The leader of the Mongols, Abdullah made a treaty with the Sultan. Abdullah accepted Islam along with his comrades. In return, the Sultan pardoned them and ordered them to settle in India. This decision proved to be a far-reaching policy. The Mongol who settled in Delhi accepted Islam. The sultan married his daughter to Genghis Khan dynasty Ulugh Khan. Mongol and circumcised Muslims
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Death of Jalaluddin Firoz

Foreign policy of Jalaluddin Firoz When Jalaluddin implemented a policy of peace and generosity in solving his internal affairs, his foreign policy should also be peaceful. It was only after the Siddi Maula Cree incident happened that the Sultan's eldest son Iridvayaruddin died. He was suspected to have financed Siddi Maula. Hence, his death was considered suspicious. As soon as he died, Arakrali Khan became Khan-e-Khana. It was fierce and imperialistic. Hence, he encouraged the Sultan to attack Ranthambhir in 1291 AD. The Sultan's army first attacked and captured Jhansi. Although the Sultan was influenced by the architecture of the temples there, but in the zeal of pride, he destroyed the temple.

Death of Jalaluddin Firoz

And he gave a Delhi table to his fragmented deities, where he chose him in the steps of Jama Masjid. The Muslims of Delhi gladly gave those idols to Mentha 3 with the help of their feet. Soon after this incident, the king himself took the Vandas in the fort with his huge army. The military power of the Sultan Crow King was revealed through detectives. He wished to return to the capital by not enclosing the fort. Arkali was not with this campaign. Barani says that Ahmed Chapp explained to Sultan Crow that the fort should be attacked and attacked. In response to this, the Sultan says that I believe even a hundred fortresses with a hair of Muslims. Therefore, I do not want to waste Muslim's self in trying to win it. But this statement of Barani does not seem to be completely true. If he did not want to bleed the Muslims in the war, then why did he 'attack' Malwa? So, it seems that the exact reason was that he had been sitting on the throne for a year. Therefore, he did not want to be absent from the capital for long. Therefore it can be said that the reason for returning from Ranthambhapar was not the mental debility of the Sultan, but the political situation and military necessity.
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